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Basic Dyes

Basic Dyes
Basic dye is a cationic stain and reacts with material that is negatively charged. Usually available in synthetic form, these act as bases and are actually aniline dyes. As their color base is not soluble in water, this can be achieved by converting base into salt. These basic dyes also possess :
  • Great tinctorial strength
  • Brightness

At a chemical level, basic dyes are typically cationic and display cationic functional groups. Further, as basic dye is a type of stain that is cationic / positively charged, it reacts well with materials that are anionic /negatively charged.

Basic dyes comprise:
  • Amino groups / Alkylamino groups (as their auxochromes)

A few examples of basic dyes are:
  • Methylene blue
  • Crystal violet
  • Basic fuchsin safranin

Further, an example of basic dye which has amino groups as their auxochrome is Basic Blue 9 which is very popular dye and has great usage value.

Table of Basic Blue 9:
Common name Methylene Blue
Other name Methylene Blue
Suggested name Swiss blue
C I name Basic blue 9, Solvent blue 8
C I number 52015
Ionisation Thiazin
Solubility aqueous 3.55%
Solubility ethanol 1.48%
Class Basic
Color Blue
Empirical formula C16H18N3SCl
Formula weight 319.9
A basic chemical structure of Basic Blue 9

Advantages of Basic Dyes :
  • Moderate substantively
  • Relatively economical
  • High Tinctorial strength
  • Wide shade range
  • Shows good brightness
  • Includes some of the most brilliant synthetic dyes

Limitations of Basic Dye :
  • High acid content
  • Colored backwaters
  • Poor shade stability
  • Preferential dyeing
  • Very poor light fastness

Modified Basic Dye :
Having same chemistry as basic dyes, modified basic dyes have a bit longer molecular structures in comparison to typical conventional basic dyes. Some of the key advantages over conventional basic dyes include:
  • Better Light fastness
  • Clear backwaters
  • Covers all fibres
  • Excellent substantively

Application of Basic Dyes :
Basic dyes are extensively used for dyeing of:
  • Jute
  • Cut flowers
  • Dried flower
  • Coir
  • Acrylic fibres

With basic dyes not showing any migration in acrylic fibers under normal dyeing conditions, these are also preferred for dyeing of leather. Here, threes get combined easily with vegetable-tanned leather, thus doing away with mordant. Further, basic dyes are also used in coloring of papers.
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