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Glossary

A
Acid Dye - It is applied to polyamide fibers from acidic solutions. Essentially a synthetic dye, it is used for dyeing of silk, wool and nylon.

Affinity - In dyeing field, affinity means preferential attraction of dye towards fiber other than for solution of dye bath. With dye having strong affinity, it easily leaves dye solution of dispersion and gets attached to fiber that is put for dyeing process.

Aniline - Aniline is commonly used term in synthesis of dyes. With chemical formula of C6H7N, it is known as aniline oil and finds usage as a synonym for synthetic dyes.

Azo - Azo refers to chemical compound containing double nitrogen atoms with double bond between them (-N=N-). These dyes form largest group of dyes and display stability, strength, light-fastness and also respond well to mixing. Azo dyes can be found among dye classes of direct, acid, basic, reactive and disperse.

B
Basic Dye - Generally Basic dyes are cationic dyes that are able to react with acidic groups on fibers.

Bi-Functional Reactive Dye - These dyes have in them the potential to react with fiber in more than a single way.

Binder - It is a colorless material which is used to attach pigment to fabric. Binders act like "glues" and help in holding the pigment in place. Some popular examples include paints that have pigments mixed with binders.

C
Cation - it is a positively charged ion. A large number of chemicals that find application in textile processing are referred as cationic.

Cellulose - It is a polymer comprising of large numbers of units with each having general formula represented by C6H10O5.

Chromophore - It is a color-bearing compound that has special properties which is found in organic molecule that makes it appear colored.

Color Index - It is a publication that is jointly introduced by Society of Dyers and Colorists of Great Britain and American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists.

Chrome - It is any salt of chromium which finds usage in tanning and dyeing process.

D
Direct Application - It’s a method which is used for describing process where solution of dye is locally applied to different fabric areas like painting, squirting, spraying, stamping

Direct Dye - It is a dye which is carried out by immersing fiber in dye solution without any need of other chemicals for bonding dye to fibers.

Disperse Dye - These dyes are found in dye bath as kind of suspension/dispersion of microscopic particles and have only a minuscule amount in true solution at any given moment of time.

E
Enzyme - These are type of protein that are presently popularly used in the field of textile processing. These perform role of catalyst in biochemical reaction. Some of popular examples include Amylase - applied for de-sizing and Cellulose - Used in modification of cellulosic fabrics.

Exhaust Dyeing - This type of dyeing finds usage in denoting application of dye bath of moderately larger liquor to goods ratio in a situation where fiber is immersed for a while. It allows dye molecules to exit bath and get attached to fibers.

F
FBA - Fluorescent Brightening Agent.

Fixation - It refers to formation of final bonding between fiber and dye. This bond type that is formed changes with type of dye and fiber.

G
Gel Dyeing - It’s a continuous type of tow-dyeing method where use of soluble dyes is made to wet-spun fibers in gel state. This stage is after processes of extrusion and coagulation but before drying and drawing.

H
Hardness - It’s a measurement which ascertains content of minerals that imparts specific properties.

I
Illuminating Dye - It’s a dye mixed with discharge paste in printing methods. It is also referred as head dyes.

Indigo - It’s a sort of natural/synthetic vat dye that is given designation of Color Index Vat Blue 1. Indigo is one of oldest colorants used for textiles. Originally the extraction was done from plants, but presently it is done through synthetic means.

J
Jet Dyeing - It’s a process that is used in dyeing of Polyester.

K
Kilogram - It’s a unit of mass (weight) in system of metric and equals approximately 2.2 pounds avoirdupois. L
Lake - These are pigments produced as result of absorption of dye on substrate. The most common substrate is alumina hydrate.

Liquor ratio (also liquor to goods ratio): This ratio denotes weight of dye bath/any other processing bath to weight of goods which is being dyed or processed.

Light Fastness - It is typically used as a means of measurement for ascertaining how resistant coloring material like dye would be fading when it is exposed to light.

M
Metal - Complex Dye - It’s a dye that typically has coordinated metal atoms in its molecule.

Mordant - These are chemicals which assist in attachment of dyestuff to fibers through bonding to fiber and also to dye.

N
Non-Ionic – It’s a chemical that does not get ionized in solution while at the same time remaining in intact molecular form. Some of the surfactants are non-ionic.

No-Wick HF - it is used with Liquid Decorator Colors for enabling fine line drawing.

P
pH - It’s a measure of concentration of hydronium found in solution.

Pigment - It’s a substance used in particulate form that is substantially insoluble in medium.

R
Reactive Dye - It’s a dye which under proper conditions has the ability to react chemically with substrate for forming covalent dye-substrate linkage.

Retayne - It’s a type of cationic dye fixing agent that is typically used on cotton fabrics for bringing desired improvements in wet fastness of direct dyes and for adding color paper pulp.

S
Sodium Hydroxide - Its a strong base also known by the name of caustic soda/ lye. Known as "caustic" in dyeing terms, its chemical Formula is NaOH.

Sulphur Dye - It’s a dye that contains sulphur as integral part of chromophore as well as in attached polysulphide chains. These dyes are not soluble in water and need to get converted into soluble form before their application.

Sublimation - Its conversion of solid directly into gas, without getting it passed through liquid phase.

T
Tannic Acid - It’s a mixture of compounds which are derived from natural sources like oak. The treatment done using it followed by treatment of tartar emetic improves wash fastness of dyed nylon or wool.

U
Ultraviolet - It’s the light that is beyond portion that is visible of light spectrum at blue end. It causes fading of colors and makes fluorescent compounds glow.

Union Dye - It’s a dye that is generally mixture of two/more different classes of dye and is used to dye blends of fibers.

V
Vat Dye - These dyes are water-insoluble and contain keto groups, which is normally applied to fiber from aqueous alkaline solution of reduced enol from which subsequently gets oxidized in fiber to an insoluble form.

Vinyl Sulphone - These reactive dyes are generally intermediate in terms of reactivity and are used above room temperatures that are considerably below boiling point of water. Some of its typical usage include cellulosic fibers and with some use for wool also.

W
Wash Fastness - This term is used to measure resistance of dye to washing out.

Wetting Agent - It’s a chemical that aids water to penetrate material or to form film over its surface. Usually acting as a surfactant, wetting agents find usage in dyeing process where it aids dye solution to penetrate to individual fibers.

Y
Yarn Dyeing - It’s a term of dyeing yarn before being woven into fabric.

Z
Zinc Formaldehyde Sulphoxylate - It’s a color Index Reducing Agent 6 used for application in discharge.



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