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Home » Dyestuff » Metal-Complex Dyes

Metal-Complex Dyes

Metal-Complex Dyes
Metal complex dyes offered by us are pre-metalized dyes which show great affinity towards protein fibres. In these dyes one/two dye molecules are coordinated with metal ion with the dye molecule having typically mono - azo structure that contains additional groups like:
  • Hydroxyl
  • Carboxyl/amino

These are capable of forming strong co-ordination complexes with transition metal ions like:
  • Chromium
  • Cobalt
  • Nickel
  • Copper

Following table shows comparison between 1:1 metal-complex and 1:2 metal complex dye:
Dye Type Leveling Ability Wash Fastness pH Range
1:1 metal-complex Good Good 2
1:2 metal complex Poor Very Good 6-7

Belonging to many application classes of dyes, Metal-complex dyes are found among direct, acid as well as reactive dyes. Further, when these are applied in dyeing processes, these are used in pH conditions that is regulated by:
  • User class
  • Type of fibre type (wool, polyamide, etc)

The pH levels for wool typically range from:
  • Strongly acidic (ranging from 1.8 - 4 for 1:1 metal-complex dyes)
  • Moderately acidic neutral (ranging from 4 - 7 for 1:2 metal-complex dyes

Types of Metal Complex Dyes:
Classification of metal complex dyes is based on basis of number of dye molecules that are complexed with one metal ion.
1:1 metal complex dyes In 1:1 metal complex dyes one metal ion is complexed with one dye molecule.
1:2 metal complex dyes In 1:2 metal complex dyes there are two dye molecules which are complexed with one metal atom

Features of Metal Complex Dyes:
  • Medium washing fastness
  • Excellent, light-fastness
  • Shows good level dyeing and penetration characteristics
  • Can cover up for irregularities in substrates
  • These have good leveling & penetration properties
  • These are particularly suitable for application on carbonized wool
  • These dyes are applied under strongly acidic bath at pH of 1.8 –2.5 with sulfuric acid
  • These dyes are applied under strongly acidic bath at pH of 3-4 with formic acid
  • Not suitable for blends having cotton components
  • Subdivided into two subgroups based on solubilising groups present in dye molecule
  • Dyes show moderate migration properties on nylon but good overall fastness properties as these not only attach to nylon with ionic linkages but also with coordinate bonds

Application of Metal Complex Dyes:
Metal Complex Dyes find usage in variety of applications like:
  • Wood stains
  • Leather finishing
  • Stationery printing inks
  • Inks
  • Coloring for metals
  • Coloring of plastic

The two subgroups are:
  • Weakly polar dyes
  • Strongly polar dyes

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